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زبان انگلیسی

سه‌شنبه 23 شهریور‌ماه سال 1389

tense review

                     (In the name of god)

                                      (( Time in the English))

    Past------------------present-------------------future

Simple present

1-the simple present used in the present time

For example : Ali plays football very well.

This sentence is simple because have not (ed) (ing)

2-the simple present is also used to express customs and habitual activity .

For example : I m play football every day.

Sometimes in the simple present sentence has some word (every usually always .never…)

 

the simple present  is :( subject + infinitive without to.)

present continuous

1-in present continuous used to express a single activity .

For example: I am studying            English.

2-the simple present used a series of activities  happening the period of time that it is not necessarily at the moment of speaking.

For example : he is studying English every day.

3-the simple present used future time or between present time and future time .

For example: they are flying to Texas.

4-the simple present is also used to express opinions.

For example : my landlady makes excellent .(opinions)

The formol present perfect is :subject +am/is/are+ infinitive (ing)

                      

  Writing about simple present.

The subject :

                                                           TV

In today world tv very important, because tv is communication between people .

People can by tv  has more information .Tv  has different information for example : news . sport …

Some people agree the tv but some people disagree with tv

People that was agree for example woman because always has in the house and full time has with tv .

But people that was disagree reason some problem for example always they cannot study or they can not go to the job .

So ,tv sometimes is good and sometimes is bad but also every thing that to be use good is very nice.

                          (  The end )

1-2 NON –CONTINUOUS VERBS

-some verb used in the express perception   for example (fell-hear-see-small-taste)

This verb not usually occur in the continuous tenses (present continuous .present prefect continuous- past continuous- past perfect continuous- future continuous)

In voluntary Action                                          

Voluntary Action

1-i feel cold – close the window                      

 

Ali is felling the material to see if its

Real silk

-fell can also be used in the continuous from when it is used in a medical sense .

I m not felling well today --------------I have a cold .

- example for see:   meet by appointment ---- Ali is seeing the director today.

Present perfect : the present perfect is used to express an action or emotion that started in the past and continued in to the present .

e.g…I have read that book ,its very good .

2-used more than the present perfect continuous for action that are more long-term in nature .

E,g…tom has made a lot of money since 1980

---after this verb used the present perfect or present perfect continuous

Look-listen-careful- take care

(subject+ have/has +p.p)

e.g…I have read that look ,it is very good .

3-used indicate a single action

e.g… Mary has washed the dishes

4-the present perfect is used to indicate the number of time an action has been done .

e.g…I have resd this statistics problem five time .

present prefect continuous

1-the present prefect continuous used to emphasize the continuous nature of an activity that started in the past and has continued into the present .

2-the present perfect is used to indicate an action that happen at an indefinite time in the past .

(subject+ have/has+ been+ infinitive ing )

3-used in indicate an action that happened at an infinitive time in the past .the time of the action is not given .

e.g…Ana has finished her composition .

**when the time is given ,the simple past is used

e.g… Ana finished her composition two days ago .

**used with just and already the present prefect expresses an action that started in the past but finished recently or very close to the moment of speaking.

e.g…A—don’t forget to mail the package

       B---I ve already mailed .I want to the post office this morning .or its on the way I ve  just returned home from the post office .

·        correct …I have finally returned the book to the library .

·        incorrect …I have finally been returning the book to the library .

***********************************************************

Simple past : is action or short duration in the past .

e.g.: Ali talked to his boss about the problem .

-we have 2way for one word be past .the first way is add –ed to end word and the second way is common irregular verb .

In the statement used the some word for example :yesterday or before or …

So when we used simple past that action to be took place over a period of time past .

The formula is ----the subject +verb(past)

Past continuous  : the formula is ----the subject +was/were+ infinitive

 در این حالت از زمان که در گذشته اتفاق افتاده است عملی را بیان میکند که قبل از زمان معینی آغاز گشته و احتمالا بعد از آن استمرار یافته است آغاز و پایان دقیق عمل ناشناخته است .                                         

1-the past continuous expresses an action that began before the time given and probably continued after it .

e.g. Alan was talking to his boos when I walked in .

2-This tens used to express an action that continued  for rather long period .again we do not know exactly when the action began or ended.

e.g.  yesterday  morning I was jogging through the park.

Note :the choice between the simple past and the past continuous depends on the meaning of a sentence .

---when I got up this morning ,my roommate prepared breakfast .(he waited for me to get up)

---when I got up this morning my roommate was preparing breakfast .(he started before I got up )

The past perfect:     the formula is :subject +had+ p.p

e.g. I had visited him last year before he went to Japon

e.g .by the time the package arrived {I…}had left .

1- the past perfect is used in English to talk about an action in the past the happened before another action in the past .the first past action is in the past prefect .the second past action is in the simple past .

Past                                                             present                future

          1 past perfect                              2 simple past

2-the past perfect usually occurs with the simple past but the past perfect can be the only

Tense in a sentence if a specific past time is given .the past perfect is often used with   by+ time

e.g. by three o clock professor Larson s lecture had ended

3-the past prefect used with already ,yet ,never just ,ever , to emphasize the event that happened first .

4-if  it is clear which action happened first the simple past can be used for both action in  these sentence with after and before make the relationship between two action clear .

After I finished reading the book I lent it to Bob .

Before I arrived the library closed

5-it is not clear which action happened first it is necessary to use the past perfect .

6-the comma after a time clause when it appears at the beginning of sentence there no comma when the time clause is not at the beginning of the sentence .                              e.g. when professor dance had given her lecture ,she sat down .

e.g. professor dance sat down when she had given her lecture .

the past prefect continuous is action or emotion that emphasize the continuous nature of an action that happened before another action in the past .this tense is come with                              had +been +the present participate for example :

1-Christ had waited for an hour when she decided to leave .

2- Christ had been waiting for an hour when she decided to leave .

Both sentences are correct ,but the second sentence are emphasize to waiting

3-when can used the past prefect continuous that you haven’t mention the number of times .

Correct :I didn’t go to the see Sue yesterday because I had already visited her twice this week .

Incorrect : I didn’t go to the see Sue yesterday because I had already been visiting her twice this week.           

زمانی که ما در جمله تعداد دفعات انجام کاری را داریم نمیتوانیم از

  استفاده کنیم                                                                                          past prefect continuous                                              

4-the past prefect continuous is often used with for + a time .

Examples about past :

1-he is now training for national championship games ,so he goes jogging every morning from 5:30 to 8:00. by 7:30 this morning ,the  had been  jogging   (jog)for two hours.

2-when I got up at 9:00,he had taken shower ,  eaten breakfast ,and had left for work .

3-caral went (go)to department store and returned(returned) the dress she had bought  (buy) .

*******************************************************************

Future: emotion or action that do in the future .The simple future we study about future and the formed is    :      subject + will or be going to +verb

e.g. I will study English

the future continuous :

I will be working tonight .

1- the future continuous is formed with will+ be+ the present continuous

2-the future continuous expresses an action that will be in progress at a specific time in the future .

e.g. she will be studying for a test .

3-the future continuous also expresses an action that will continue to happen at different times in the future .

The future prefect : I will have finished by next week .

1-the future prefect is formed with will + have + the past participate

2- the future prefect expresses an action that will be finished at some time in the future.    

English speaker do not usually use this tense unless the completion time of the activity is clear.

3-the future prefect is often used with by+ a time , before + a time ,or in a time

e.g. we will have finished this review of tenses by the end of this week

4- the adverb such as already , probably , and certainly are placed after the first auxiliary .

e.g. by the end of this week, we will certainly have finished this review.

The future prefect continuous     

e.g. I will have been studying English for six months by the end of this course.

1-the future prefect continuous is formed with will + have been + the present prefect continuous

2- this tense emphasizes the continuous nature .

3-the future prefect continuous cannot be used with verbs that do not usually occur in continuous from .

Only verbs that show continuous action can be used .these verbs including… study, work, travel, write ,listen and watch                                                                    

Correct :I will have been studying English for three semesters by the time I take the TOEFL exam

Incorrect: I have been finishing the review for the test by next week .                          

**we can use verbs that have essence continuation for example arrive or stop etc…

                                            

                           ((   If you want you ,you can make your life ))

                                                           ((The End))